Bikeshedding disk partitioning

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I recently got a new Thinkpad. Well...new is a stretch. It's an X230, featuring an i5 and 16GB of RAM.

One of the first things I did with this laptop was to flash coreboot on it. This is something I've always wanted to be able to do, but so far lacked hardware that was supported. And generally, it felt like finally maybe I could have a laptop to tinker around with.

And that's where this post begins...

Encrypted disk

So from the start I knew I wanted to have a fully encrypted disk.

What that means is that your /boot partition (whether it is it's own partition or not), is also encrypted.

Secondly, I don't like (U)EFI... What that means is that I'm installing GRUB in the MBR (with a DOS partition table) instead.

Now: GRUB stage 1 can handle the encryption for us, but there's some limitations

  • Keyboard layout limited to US
  • /boot can only be certain partition type
  • / and /boot need be contained in an LVM

That last one might not be accurate if you only want to have an ext4 (or similar) rootfs. But because I want to have a zfs root, I need to embed it into an LVM. This is also the reason why /boot needs to be it's own partition. After we've done all this, we will install a linux distribution of choice (which we'll reveal later).

Anyway, let's get started!

Preparing the disk

(Feel free to skip this step)

Something you might want to do is letting your disk look otherwise uninitialised, or "securely erasing" any data that is already on it. But generating random data is a lot of work and /dev/urandom is very slow.

Instead you can create a crypto-disk (luks) on it, then fill it with zero's. But because of the encryption it will seem random.

(/dev/sda is my disk in this example because lolwat is nvme even?)

$ cryptsetup luksFormat /dev/sda1
$ cryptsetup luksOpen /dev/sda sda_crypto
$ dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/mapper/sda_crypto bs=512 status=progress

This might take a while, but considerably less time than filling the disk with random data. After this is done, you might want to actually wipe the first bunch of bytes.

$cryptsetup luksClose sda_crypto
$ dd if=/dev/urandom of=/dev/sda bs=1M count=8

Basic partitioning

So what we want to do is setup a single partition on /dev/sda, the same way we did to prepare the disk. Then repeat the previous command to setup a cryptodisk.

What follows is the LVM setup:

$ pvcreate lvm
$ vgcreate vg0 /dev/mapper/lvm
$ lvcreate vg0-boot -l 1G
$ lvcreate vg0-swap -l 16G
$ lvcreate vg0-root -L +100%FREE 

I included the swap partition in the LVM instead of as a ZFS subvolume because those can sometimes deadlock and this just makes things easier.

Now we want to create the filesystems. For /boot we can just use mkfs.ext4, but consider that I want to use zfs on /, that will require some more work.

$ zpool create rtank /dev/mapper/vg0-root

Feel free to call your pool whatever! At this point you could also create subvolumes to split /, /home, ... if you wanted.

Mounting & Configuration

So that's all good. How do we initialise this system now? We need to mount the zfs pool first, then /boot and then install our linux secret distribution of choice (spoilers: it's NixOS!)

$ mkdir -p /mnt/boot
$ zpool import rtank
$ mount -t zfs rtank /mnt
$ mount /dev/mapper/vg0-boot /mnt/boot
$ nixos-generate-config --root /mnt

That last line is obviously NixOS specific. You now have a fully encrypted disk setup, without using EFI. Wuuh!

The rest of this post I want to talk about how to make this all work with NixOS and reproducable configuration.

Most of what we need to configure is in the boot option. Let's go through the settings one by one:

  • boot.loader.grub
    • efiSupport = false actually the default but I like being explicit
    • copyKernels = true enable this to avoid problems with ZFS becoming unbootable
    • device = "/dev/sda" replace this with the device that holds your GRUB
    • zfsSupport = true to enable ZFS support 😅
    • enableCryptodisk = true to enable stage-1 encryption support
  • boot.zfs.devNodes = "/dev" to point ZFS at the correct device tree (not 100% if required)
  • fileSystems."/".encrypted
    • enable = true
    • label = "lvm" the label of your LVM
    • blkDev = "/dev/disk/by-uuid/f1440abd-99e3-46a8-aa36-7824972fee54" the disk that ZFS is installed to. You can find this out by looking at your symlinks in /dev/disk/by-uuid and picking the correct one.
  • networking.hostId needs to be set to some random 8 bytes

Following is the complete config to make it easier to copy stuff from:

boot.loader.grub = {
    efiSupport = false;
    copyKernels = true;
    device = "/dev/sda";
    zfsSupport = true;
    enableCryptodisk = true;
};
boot.zfs.devNodes = "/dev";

fileSystems."/" = {
    encrypted = {
        enable = true;
        label = "lvm";
        blkDev = "/dev/disk/by-uuid/f1440abd-99e3-46a8-aa36-7824972fee54";
    };
}

networking.hostId = "<random shit>";

And that's it. If you spot any errors in this article (or any for that matter), feel free to e-mail me or send me a PR over on github.